If we don’t need things like essences and whatever new product categories are invented, then what do we need? Ghalaie has all the details for a morning routine:
“Step one is cleanser, and this is necessary to clean away debris, oil, and makeup. I recommend cleansing with an AHA/BHA cleanser. Step two is exfoliator and toner to slough away dulling, clogging skin cells, dissolve oils, and promote hydration. Step three is an antioxidant serum such as vitamin C, which is great for brightening the skin and functions as an antioxidant, providing protection against free radicals.
Step four is moisturizer, and step five is SPF. This is an absolutely essential last step. Skin must be protected from UVA/UVB, even in winter months. If you use a product that also protects against HEV (the light emitted by our computer screens and mobile phones that contributes to aging of the skin) and infrared waves, you are giving yourself maximum protection.”
Depending on your preferences and skin concerns, you can also add in blemish treatments, and Ghalaie recommends eye cream before moisturizer to “protect the delicate eyelid skin and skin around the eyes.”